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The Evolving Cultural Heritage Concept: A Theoretical Review of Cultural Heritage in Indonesia

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ABSTRACT
The concept of cultural heritage offers an idea about recognising and appreciating culture. This idea considers culture as a representation of human civilisation inherited through generations. It is interesting to explore how a concept, which is initially introduced by an international platform, is relevant to the local culture. Regarding this, Indonesia is the best example in explaining this situation because this country has evolved this concept for many years since the colonial period. This inquiry is addressed in a theoretical study regarding the development of cultural heritage concept in Indonesia. A reflection on case studies articulates theories with the context. At the end of this paper, this study proposes an approach inquiring cultural heritage from the global and local perspective

KEYWORDS
Cultural heritage; conservation; symbol; local wisdom; historical memory

REFERENCES
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[2] COMOS, International charters for conservation and restoration (Paris, International Secretariat of ICOMOS, 2004)
[3] M. Vecco, A definition of cultural heritage: From the tangible to the intangible, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 11 (3), 2010, 321-324.
[4] R. Soekmono, Chandi Borobudur: A monument of mankind (The Unesco Press, 1976).
[5] D.A. Tanudirjo, Warisan budaya untuk semua: Arah kebijakan pengelola warisan budaya Indonesia di masa mendatang, Paper presented at the Kongres Kebudayaan V, (Bukittinggi, Indonesia, 2003).
[6] M. Bloembergen, and E. Martijn, Conserving the past, mobilizing the Indonesian future: Archaeological sites, regime change and heritage politics in Indonesia in the 1950s, Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia, 167 (4), 2011, 405-436.
[7] UNESCO, Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage (Paris, UNESCO, 1972).
[8] The Republic of Indonesia, Presidential Decree number 26 / 1989: Pengesahan convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage
[9] The Republic of Indonesia, Act number 5 / 1992: Benda cagar budaya
[10] The Republic of Indonesia, Presidential Regulation number 78 / 2007: Pengesahan convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage
[11] L. Smith, Uses of heritage (New York, Routledge, 2006).
[12] The Republic of Indonesia, Act number 11 / 2010: Benda cagar budaya
[13] ICOMOS Australia, The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS charter for places of cultural significance 1999 (Australia: Australia ICOMOS, 2000)
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[22] UNESCO, Borobudur Temple compounds (Paris, UNESCO, 1991)
[22] B. Karsono, and J. Wahid, Imaginary axis as a basic morphology in the city of Yogyakarta-Indonesia, Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Build Environment in Developing Countries (Penang, Malaysia, 2008).
[23] D.A. Suryanto and Sudaryono, Aspek budaya dalam keistimewaan tata ruang Kota Yogyakarta, Jurnal Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, 26 (3), 2015, 230-252.
[24] A. Kusno, Behind the postcolonial : Architecture, urban space and political cultures in Indonesia. (Florence, Taylor and Francis, 2014).
[25] J. Budiwiyanto, Rumah tradisional Jawa dalam sudut pandang religi, Ornamen, 10 (1), 2016.
[26] M. Riany, et al., Kajian aspek kosmologi-simbolisme pada arsitektur rumah tinggal vernakular di Kampung Naga, Reka Karsa, 02 (04), 2014.
[27] G.W. Pangarsa, Merah putih arsitektur nusantara (Yogyakarta, Andi Publisher, 2006).
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[30] The Republic of Indonesia, Act number 11 / 2010: Benda cagar budaya
[31] UNESCO, Historical city centre of Yogyakarta (2017)
[32] R. Soekmono, Chandi Borobudur: A monument of mankind (The Unesco Press, 1976).
[33] L. Adam, The courtyards, gates and buildings of the Kraton of Yogyakarta, in S. Robson, The Kraton: Selected essays on Javanese courts (The Netherlands, KITLV Press, 2003) 13-40
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JOURNAL
IOSR Journal of Engineering
The Evolving Cultural Heritage Concept

Categories: ARTIKEL Tags:

Cultural significance determination as preliminary analysis in preserving urban historical area (Case study on municipality of Blitar, Indonesia)

ABSTRACT: – History is a cultural richness because through history, a nation has strong foundation in future development. Blitar is one of the Indonesia city that has history richness. In the past, this city linked directly with Indonesian independence movements as the home town of Indonesian Independence Proclaimer and as place of PETA rebellions. It is important that the historical value becomes consideration in determining appropriate preservation action for plan further development strategies on an historical area. This research uses 36 objects in form of building complexes and sculptures. Analysis techniques utilized in this research are factor analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, cluster analysis and t-test. Preliminary variables utilized in this research are cultural significance parameters called theoretical variables. These theoretical variables then were extracted using factor analysis in to 3 factors. The results of this research are the cultural signification level of every object and clustering of objects that form 6 cluster based on their cultural signification attributes. As the result using t-test, it was proved that development of clusters has relationship with cultural significance level of each objects, so the model proposed by cluster analysis then can be utilized to explain pattern of cultural significance attributes of each objects.
KEYWORDS: – Cluster, Factor, Preservation, Urban History

REFERENCES:

Taufik, et al, History of Blitar (Government of Blitar Municipality, 2008).

Martokusumo, Urban heritage conservation in Indonesia, Proc in The Indonesian city revisited, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden,The Netherlands, 6-8 December, 2000.

Martokusumo, Conservation of urban environment (ITB Press, Bandung. 2005)

ICOMOS. The burra charter (Australia ICOMOS incorporated 2000, ISBN 0957852800, 1999)

Indonesian network for heritage conservation and ICOMOS Indonesia, Indonesia charter for heritage conservation (Center for heritage conservation, department of architecture and planning, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 2003)

Siregar, et al. 2010, Cultural significance factors determination of Indonesian independence historical area in Blitar city, National seminar of magister and doctoral program, engineering faculty, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia, 2010.

Al-hagla, Sustainable urban development in historical areas using the tourist trail approach, Elsevier Cities Journal 27 (2010), 234–248.

Ruiters and Sanders, Physical planning: policies, methods and techniques (Faculty of civil engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, 1998)

Afandi, Antariksa and Hariyani, Preservation of PETA headquarter in Blitar city, Graduate theses, University of Brawijaya, 2008

Adeniran and Akinlabi, Perceptions on cultural significance and heritage conservation: a case study of Sussan Wenger’s building, Osogbo, Nigeria, African Journal of History and Culture Vol. 3(5), pp. 73-88, June 2011

Avrami, Mason and Torre, Value and heritage consevation, research report., The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2009

This paper is published in:
IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN)
SSN: 2250-3021 Volume 2, Issue 8 (August 2012), PP.16-22
DOI: 10.9790/3021-02811622

Cultural significance determination as preliminary analysis in preserving urban historical area

Categories: ARTIKEL Tags:

KWU tahun 2015

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PPWK – Manajemen Kota

December 8th, 2014 No comments
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Bahan Kuliah Perencanaan Tapak 2014

December 8th, 2014 No comments
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Autodesk FORMIT – Solusi grafis dalam desain lingkungan binaan

November 29th, 2014 No comments

Saat ini desain lingkungan binaan (bangunan dan kawasan) dipermudah dengan keluarnya aplikasi opensource FORMIT. Aplikasi ini diproduksi oleh Autodesk dan dapat dipergunakan mempergunakan gatget berbasis IOS (Apple – Ipad dan Iphone) dan Android. Meskipun begitu, aplikasi ini juga dapat dinikmati mempergunakan komputer desktop berbasis Windows dan Macintosh dalam versi beta

Logo autodesk formit

Fungsi dari aplikasi ini mirip dengan Google SketchUP baik dari segi teknik penggambaran maupun hasil. Perbedaan mendasar aplikasi FORMIT dengan aplikasi desain 3D sejenis adalah sifatnya yang opensource (tak berbayar) dan adanya mekanisme penyimpanan data proyek mempergunakan teknologi Cloud melalui Autodesk 360. Selain dipergunakan untuk menggambar dalam format 3D, kita juga dapat mensimulasikan efek penggunaan material dan pencahayaan serta integrasi dengan citra satelit.

Formit 1

Formit 2

Tutorial penggunaan aplikasi FORMIT dapat diakses dari web AUTODESKFORMIT.COM
Aplikasi opensource versi beta dibuka dengan mempergunakan broser firefox (versi windows atau mac) dengan cukup membuka BETA-AUTODESKFORMIT.COM. Tentunya aplikasi Formit versi beta ini hanya dapat dibuka dengan koneksi internet.

Selamat mencoba !!!

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PPWK – Pola dan Struktur Ruang

October 29th, 2014 No comments

Berikut ini saya sampaikan bahan kuliah mengenai pola dan struktur ruang.

Semoga bermanfaat.

02 PPWK – STRUKTUR DAN POLA RUANG

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PPWK – Tata guna lahan

October 21st, 2014 No comments

Berikut ini saya sampaikan bahan kuliah PPWK dengan topik Tata Guna Lahan

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01 PPWK – Tata guna lahan

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SIMULASI MAKET STUDI MORFOLOGI KOTA

September 24th, 2014 No comments

Morfologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari bentuk dan konfigurasi ruang serta aspek-aspek yang mempengaruhinya. Kajian ini sangat baik untuk mengembangkan wawasan dan kerangka berpikir logis perencana terkait bagaimana ruang kota berkembang, berproses dan bertransformasi. Beberapa literatur pokok seperti “Public Place, Urban Space” (Carmona et al: 2003), “Space is the machine” (Hillier: 2007) dan “ Image of the City (Lynch) menekankan bagaimana komponen-komponen morfologi yang terdiri dari guna lahan, struktur bangunan, pola persil, jaringan jalan dan aristektur kota saling berinteraksi satu sama lain dan sistem aktivitas sebagai parameter pokoknya.

Permasalahan pokok dalam pembelajaran perencanaan dan perancangan kota adalah adanya ketidakmampuan atau kurangnya kepekaan mahasiswa dalam memahami sistem ruang yang kompleks ini, seperti kepekaan terhadap aspek visual yang dibentuk oleh skala ruang atau kaitan logis antara intensitas guna lahan dengan sistem pergerakan. Mata kuliah pilihan (MKP) Morfologi Kota berusaha menjembantani permasalahan ini dengan mempergunakan media maket studi. Kegiatan ini dilakukan dalam bentuk simulasi pertama pada tanggal 19 September 2014 untuk mengukur kemampuan dasar mahasiswa dan akan dilanjutkan pada pertemuan terakhir MKP Morfologi Kota.

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Gambar di atas memperlihatkan suasana berlatih dimana mahasiswa mendapatkan tugas terstruktur untuk mensimulasikan ruang kota Malang dalam bentuk maket studi. Dalam proses ini terjadi interaksi dan diskusi antar sesama anggota kelompok dan proses imajinasi dimana masing-masing peserta langsung terlibat dalam pembentukan ruang dalam skala tertentu.

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Dalam tugas terstruktur ini, dosen mendorong mahasiswa untuk mampu mendeskripsikan komponen-komponen morfologi ruang dan melakukan interpretasi sederhana.

Penerapan teknik pembelajaran ini diharapkan tidak hanya membantu dalam meningkatkan kemampuan analisis dan interpretasi mahasiswa, tetapi juga dapat mencairkan suasana akademik yang tidak terpaku dengan metode pembelanjaran komvensional. Dengan demikian, diharapkan minat belajar dan berlatih mahasiswa akan meningkat sehingga tujuan perkuliahan dapat tercapai.

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Bahan kuliah morfologi kota

September 9th, 2014 No comments

Berikut ini saya sampakan bahan kuliah morfologi kota

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01 KONSEP DAN KOMPONEN MORFOLOGI
Mindmap 0f Urban Morphology
01 Morfologi kota OPENING

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